As many educators holding an early childhood development degree will attest, early literacy development and growth is a process that occurs in stages throughout the first years of a child’s life, and oral language is a critical component. Distinguished research fellow and online learning course content expert Dr. Dorothy Strickland once said, “Oral language and literacy develop concurrently. We don’t need to wait until children get into first grade before we really begin to think about literacy. It starts much earlier. And, while oral language is foundational, children who aren’t speaking—if they don’t have a strong vocabulary—are less likely to do well with literacy.”
Children’s home experiences greatly impact their language and literacy development. We know that the more we talk to children, the more words they will hear and learn over time, which is crucial to the development of their oral language skills. Unfortunately, certain cultural and socioeconomic influences can negatively impact a child’s language development.
In fact, a renowned study conducted in 1995 by Betty Hart and Todd Risley revealed startling differences in language development for children from economically advantaged homes versus those in low-income households.1 For example, the recorded vocabulary size of children in professional families was statistically higher than that of a parent in a low-income family. Dr. Strickland believed this type of data is important and should be used to guide educators.
|Recorded Vocabulary Size |
Hart and Risley study
| Professional Families |
|Welfare Families |
“What can we do in our classrooms to make sure that these children have the kind of environment that will support language and literacy?” challenged Dr. Strickland. “[Our classrooms need] responsive adults who are positive with children, who talk with children, and who use words that expand the language base for children.” The educators best equipped to meet this need typically hold early childhood degrees, such as a bachelor’s in early childhood studies, a master’s degree in early childhood studies, or an EdS degree in early childhood education.
Fortunately, even in preschool classroom settings where the student population contains a variety of household statuses, all students benefit from best practices designed to support oral language development. Here are a few:2
Greetings: Greet each child individually when they arrive in the classroom and encourage them to greet others.
Show and Tell: Encourage children to talk about and expand on experiences and interests they engage in outside of the classroom.
Story Readings: Read stories to children in a group setting, using a big book with enlarged print. Select children’s books with repetitive language patterns, so children can anticipate what will happen and understand how sentences are constructed.
Story Discussions: Encourage children to participate in discussions about books to help them practice their conversational skills.
Writing and Reading: Work with children to create varied types of text such as lists, stories, and paragraphs of information.
Language Play: Find ways to engage children in language using playful approaches like songs, tongue twisters, and rhymes.
If you are considering an early childhood development degree and are interested in the advantages of an online learning environment, The Richard W. Riley College of Education and Human Sciences at Walden University is accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) and offers a number of programs for teachers at the bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral levels.
Explore Walden University's online early childhood education degree programs for graduates and undergraduates. Get the help you need to continue your education and advance your career goals. Earn your degree in a convenient online format that fits your busy life.
1Source: Risley, T., & Hart, B. (1995). Meaningful Differences in Everyday Experiences of Young American Children. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.
2Source: Griffith, P., Beach, S., Ruan, J., & Dunn, L. (2008). Figure 2.4 on Ways to Support Oral Language Use Throughout the Day. Literacy for Young Children: A Guide for Early Childhood Educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Dr. Dorothy Strickland (1933–2020) was a contributing course content expert for Canter®, a Walden University educational partner. With more than 50 years of experience as a reading and literacy expert, she was a renowned advocate of equitable literacy instruction and of improving the quality of teacher education programs and professional development.
Canter® Course: Teaching Beginning Readers, Resources Section 1.
Walden University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission, www.hlcommission.org.
Walden University is accredited by the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) for a period of seven years, from April 2019 through June 2026. This accreditation covers initial teacher preparation programs and advanced educator preparation programs. CAEP is the only recognized national accreditor for educator preparation, promoting excellence in educator preparation through quality assurance and continuous improvement. Walden University earned CAEP accreditation by meeting rigorous national standards and demonstrating excellence in the areas of content and pedagogy, clinical experiences, selectivity, program impact, and capacity for continuous improvement.
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