Jonathan Greenblatt: So, today I’m going to talk a little bit about my background. I’m going to share with you some thoughts on the context in which I think we are operating. Again, what does this new world order look like? And I’ll share with you a case study, an example, of a firm that really was able to leverage the impact economy, and that’s Ethos Water. And then, finally, I’ll share some closing thoughts. And the reason why you’re here is because you made a conscious decision to be part of this fairly remarkable global community. I think that’s a huge statement in and of itself. Again, like I said, I think you are well positioned to thrive in the world to come. But before we get to that world, let’s look backwards, and I’ll tell you again just a little bit about my background.
So, see the photo behind me? This is a picture that was taken in Germany, in the eastern side of Germany, in the mid ’30s. And, actually, it says a lot about who I am standing here on this stage, you know, 80 some-odd years later. I don’t know if you can see what it says on the top of this building—of this store—but that man, actually, over on the right-hand side of the picture, that’s my grandfather, Bernhard Greenblatt, and you can see his name written across the shop. He had a hair salon, a barbershop, in Germany in the ’30s. And my grandfather, like so many, was Jewish, and, as it turns out, being Jewish in Germany in the ’30s … not a really terrific combination. My grandfather had the wits and the will to escape. And he did. He escaped in 1938 on one of the last boats to take Jewish refugees out of Nazi Germany. Unfortunately, most of his family didn’t survive. So my grandfather came to this country as an immigrant, a little younger than me. Didn’t speak the language, didn’t have any family here, didn’t have any money, but somehow, he made it work.
And I learned at a very early age that I could change the world, that I could be a part of something bigger than me, and I could leave a stamp, leave an imprint, and affect people’s lives. This always stayed with me. This always was part of my consciousness. And so it was the reason why, years later, when I was graduating from college—and I was the first in my family to graduate from college—I called my parents one day, and I said, “Hey.” I was at school in Boston, so it was 1992. I said, “I’ve got a great idea, Mom and Dad. I want to go volunteer for Governor Clinton’s presidential campaign.”
Now how many of you are here from the great state of Arkansas? A couple of you? I see one person actually over there. Nice to see you. Well, I can tell you, you may have known Governor Clinton, but in—if you remember, in ’91, ’92, before, I mean, a long, it’s a long time ago in relative terms—my parents didn’t know Governor Clinton, most of the country didn’t know Governor Clinton. And so my parents said, “Wait a second. Let me get this straight. You just graduated from a fine four-year institution.”
“And you’re not going to go to law school or business school or go into consulting.”
“Instead you want to go—you’re going to go wait tables in Harvard Square”—that was my plan—“so that you can volunteer for this governor from where exactly? Oh, who’s going to lose?” Because that was the conventional wisdom at the time.
And I said, “Yep, Mom and Dad, it’s a great plan.”
Well, suffice to say, my parents weren’t all that thrilled with the idea, but I thought I could change the world. I thought I could be a part of something bigger than me and so that was the decision that I made. Turns out, it was a pretty good decision, and things tended to work—worked out pretty well with that. And, again, that sort of reinforced the lesson that I had learned is that we can change the world through acts small and large. And that was part of the reason why, almost 10 years later, I decided to join my business school classmate, Peter Thum, and start Ethos Water. And then it was why, a few years later, I decided to leave my job as CEO of Good and work for President-elect Barack Obama. And it’s the reason why I then left Washington and launched this thing called All for Good, which is an open source website that I helped to build. Today, it’s the largest database of volunteer opportunities on the Internet.
All through my life, I’ve been making these decisions about changing the world. Sometimes they’re small acts and sometimes they’re large. Sometimes it’s creating companies, and sometimes it’s just making a conscious decision to lead my life a little bit differently. It’s something that all of us can do, including all of you. Including all of you, and that’s what we’re going to talk about. Today, I run a program at the Aspen Institute. It’s a think tank in Washington, and we’re trying to build out the plan to create this impact economy, trying to build the plan so we can scale up the field of social entrepreneurship. It’s an exciting platform, and that’s really where I am. How can we make change happen at a huge scale, ’cause we need that in order for—to turn around some of the terrible trends that we’re dealing with in this world. I mean, the context in which you are getting your education, the working world where you are already participating, is changing with a velocity that's almost unprecedented in the history of humanity, and there are forces that are driving that. It’s just a new operating context.
I think one of the most significant phenomena today, maybe the singular most important, is the dawning awareness, the acceptance of climate change and the fragility of our ecosystems. Now, there may be some of you in the audience who don’t believe in climate change, and, actually, I saw there’s a meeting of the Flat Earth Society right down the hall that you can check out. And they’re filming another moon walk on the other side of the auditorium. No, I say this because the data is empirical, and it is real that we’re living with the highest levels of carbon in our atmosphere in something like 600 million years and that we’re seeing the rate of change, the reports today about the pace, the rising of ocean sea—oceans and the sea level. In California, it’s happening at a pace far beyond what the original data suggested. And I think we’ve simply learned that the externalities that we—that once didn’t account for in our accounting systems now need to be calculated for, because we’re not going to stop climate change, folks. It’s simply a matter of how do we adapt to it, how do we adjust for it, and how do we try to build businesses and create organizations that can succeed in that new environment. So the fragility of our world is real and difficult to argue with.
Now a second trend, a second phenomenon that is also incredibly profound is what I describe as adjacency. Some might call it globalization. The fact of the matter is because of political reform, because of technology, the growth of technology, because of international trade and business, we live in a moment today where there are no longer those kind of barriers that once kept countries apart from one another that once kept people apart from one another. It’s been called the death of distance, and it’s very, very real. Today, you are as likely—you are almost as likely to have things in common with people in, let’s say, Abu Dhabi as you are just down the road from where you live. And I think Walden is a perfect example of that. The students with whom you take your classes, who once, you know, when maybe a few years ago, when we were growing up—other than correspondence courses—you sat next to people in a desk. Right? You could touch them. Well, now those people online could be coming from anywhere in the world. And brands are really at the forefront of this, and whether it’s McDonald’s in the Gulf or Starbucks in India or Asian and Latin American brands coming here to our country, adjacency is real. We live in one incredibly shrinking world.
Another powerful phenomenon is what I describe as discoverability. Because of the advent of technology and the Internet, even though it was just invented in the early ’90s by Al Gore, the fact of the matter is we’re living in this extraordinary moment when anything that has ever been written can really be found, thanks to our friends at Google. Where anyone online can be discovered, thanks to our friends at Facebook. Imagine this for a moment. Facebook, which was founded in 2004, less than seven years ago, today has 600 million members. That would make it the third largest country on the planet. And of those 600 million members, somewhere between 250 and 275 million use it every single day. It’s really quite profound how fast this has exploded and how you are very likely to be able to find anyone, anywhere, and, of course, this has created problems. Admissions officers report with increasing frequency that they decline people who apply to their colleges and universities—job recruiters are doing the same thing—based on Facebook searches. Those photo, the photo you thought you took. Remember everything—what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas? Whoever told you that … Hope you don’t believe that anymore. And the explosions of cell phones and the reach, the ubiquitous reach of search engines like Google make everything discoverable today. And now you layer on top of that this explosion in mobile technology. So there is this extraordinary phenomenon where you have massive computing power embedded in our lives in ways that has never happened before, and that creates a whole other issue, which is immediacy. The volume of those Facebook pokes or those tweets is really overwhelming. Twitter, which was founded just three years ago, today is supporting roughly 200 million members all over the world who are doing 120 million tweets a day. A day. It is—to say that it’s dizzying I think is an understatement. When everything is discoverable and everyone has multiple computers on their person at any given time, the volume of information creates an immediacy.
So, again, if we think about this context, we have a massive deluge of information enabled by mobile, enabled by this phenomenon of discoverability. It’s the world in which you are all heading. And then the question becomes, well, how does one succeed? How can I be a social entrepreneur?
You can find social entrepreneurs in all walks of life. This isn’t just about making money. I would say, though, the thing that makes a social entrepreneur such a remarkable phenomenon is they’re trying to build business, as I mentioned before, with social impact right at the heart of it. So when you find these people in a private-sector setting, maybe like many of you, they start off by saying, “How can I build a business to fix this problem?” And that idea of a business, but animated by social issues, this is new. I mean, I would say this: When a business hires people that’s a social impact. When a business pays fair value—pays fair wages, that’s a social impact. When a business makes it easier for people to lead their lives, that could be a social impact, too. But the difference is the social entrepreneur sets out to say, “Look it, I’m going to build a product or service to fix that disequilibrium.” That’s different.
Now, on the other side, we are increasingly seeing people in the nonprofit space, social entrepreneurs. And we know that typically the reason why people go into nonprofit work is to make a difference. But the social entrepreneur goes into the field to say, “How can I make a difference, but do it in a way that creates economic sustainability, do it in a way that works with market-based models?” These nonprofit executives, they behave more like businesspeople. So there’s a series of behaviors and a series of attributes we find in the classic social entrepreneur. I would suggest that this is a pretty reasonable list or a starting point. Now, again, I don’t believe that you go, you need to go out and build the next great business or to launch the next national nonprofit to make an impact, but I would say to you, all of you can find ways to be socially entrepreneuring in your own lives. And ask yourselves, “How do I map against this set of attributes? Have I had my personal epiphany? Is there a way that I can create direct action? Is there an equilibrium that I want to try and repair?”
This is sort of the essence of Ethos, which is: How can you turn this irrational product into something just a little bit more rational? How could you transform an act of extravagance into an act of philanthropy? How could you bring together water that we have here for people who need water around the world? How could you link water for water, so suddenly the consumption would support the cause instead of being at cross purposes with it? And this is the essence of Ethos, water for water. Social entrepreneurship starts with mission. It begins with that moment, your epiphany, where you think about, “How can I take action to right this wrong?” And that—again that may be a small decision to no longer drink bottled water or that may be something big, to create a whole new brand that solves this problem. It starts with mission. Now, how did we do that? That sounds good, water for water, right? But we wanted to change the way that people thought about water so that every bottle would make a difference.
Here’s how we did it. Number one, we set out to donate up to 50% of our after-tax profits to fund humanitarian water programs around the world, to provide those people with water sanitation and hygiene education. Fifty percent! Big number. Secondly, we sought to use our marketing as education because we felt that the answer to this problem, the way we could spawn a social movement, would not be by just selling lots of water, but by evangelizing, by enlisting people in our cause, so they could do what I did as a seven-year-old, so they could find ways to be activated. So it was a mission with two ways we were going to deliver on that. Now, how did it actually work? Well, it started with Peter. Peter was my business partner and my apartment-mate in business school, and he had his epiphany when he was working as a consultant, went to South Africa, saw people living without clean water, and that’s what got the idea—that’s where the idea germinated. And it took time, it took research, took our partnership. It took a lot of things for it to come to fruition, but the fact of the matter is, we spent countless hours in stores like this one and other places connecting with people and describing what we were doing. Now, we had left our jobs and had used our savings to build this business, and that was one of the things that resonated with consumers, the authenticity of Ethos, the integrity of two guys trying to do something to make the world a better place. Social enterprises that succeed have authenticity at their core. It’s an essential element of their architecture. Think about that. You can’t contrive authenticity in a cubicle. You can’t focus group your way to it. Authenticity is genuine, and it comes from the heart.
Now, the heart’s a funny thing. Sounded good to me and to Peter, and I remember the phone call with my parents, much like the one I’d had about—during the Clinton campaign <laughs> ten years before. I said, “Mom and Dad, I’ve got this great idea.”
They said, “OK.” They have learned to tolerate my great ideas.
I said, “OK, going to leave my job in corporate America to go start a bottled water company—it’s not going to be—the water’s not going to be from some special place, and we’re going to go up against Coke and Pepsi and Nestlé, and then we’re going to give away half our profits.”
My mom and dad thought, “Oh, that sounds like a great idea, Jonathan. Good luck with that!” <laughs>
And so we took that pitch to Sand Hill Road, to the capital of the venture-capital movement. How do you think they responded? There weren’t a lot of takers. We had hundreds of meeting with prospective investors, all of whom turned us down for reasons that I think you might surmise if your child came to you with a similar idea. But the fact of the matter is we were lucky we had these friends at companies like Visa and MasterCard who were only too happy to indulge us. They thought it was a great idea! <laughs> It’s funny how generous they can be. And so that’s really what it took to get the business started. We didn’t have the benefit of, you know, large-scale private equity. We only had our personal credibility and our diminishing savings accounts.
But we had a plan, and we had—we thought we were onto something, and to explain that, I’m going to use this diagram. Anybody recognize this? Wow, this is—at Walden University everybody knows what it is. Right, Abraham Maslow, famous sociologist, this is his hierarchy of human needs, a way that he mapped what we need as people. And, so, I’m going to try to apply this to the bottled water industry if you’ll indulge me. So, at the bottom of that pyramid are body needs, right, those, like, basic needs, survival needs, and I would put there sort of private-label water. Let me make the point. How many of you shop at Costco or buy water at Costco? Raise your hands. Anybody? Okay, so why do you buy water at Costco? You in the front row? Cheap. Honesty, I love it. Who else? Why does someone else buy water at Costco? Is that the only reason? Pardon? Wholesale, which probably means less expensive. Anything else? Quantity. There’s a lot of them, right? Yes? You were going to say the same? Right, so it’s cheap, and easy, convenient. That’s those private-label products. We just know we’re going to drink it, it’s not going to kill us, right? <laughs> Maybe someone’s had a different experience over there. So it’s easy.
Then we have water like Ozarka or Arrowhead. Anybody here drink Ozarka here this weekend, right? How many of you think that water comes from a place called Ozarka? Can someone take me there later this afternoon, because I’d like to see it for myself? In Southern California, we drink Arrowhead, and I’m sure there was a point in time when it really was from Mt. Arrowhead. That was a long time ago. But Nestlé Waters, a division of Nestlé, the largest food company on the planet, a global multinational corporation, years ago, saw bottled water as an opportunity, and they went around the U.S., and they bought up local springs. And then they took those local springs and packaged them up in local brands. They’re evocative of your area. So in Southern California, it’s Arrowhead. You see the mountain and the luxurious trees, right? It’s a place where I take my kids to go skiing. And in the East Coast, it’s Poland Springs, and in the Midwest, it’s Deer Park or Ice Mountain, excuse me, as if there was such a place, and in Florida, Zephyr Hills, and here, it’s Ozarka. And the list goes on. Right? So they are playing on the regional association with that place, building a sense of trust, making you feel secure, like it’s from a place that you know. Mt. Arrowhead. But, in reality, it’s not, and it hasn’t been for a very long time, but they’re playing on security.
Now, next up are Pepsi and Coke, Aquafina and Dasani. Anyone been to the springs of Aquafina? You can see it right there. Look, the mountains, the sun. Or how about Dasani. Sounds, like, vaguely European, right? So where did Aquafina and Dasani come from? Who knows? Anyone? City water supplies <laughs>, that’s right. They come from Houston. Or Minneapolis. Or Portland, Maine; or New York City; Sarasota, Florida; Chicago, Illinois; Seattle, Washington … just depends on where you are. They’re municipal water. Guys, it’s tap water. It’s tap water. That’s all it is. But Coke and Pepsi have built the largest two bottled water brands in America, because they saw this trend and thought, “This is a better way, we can get—use our distribution, use our vending machines, use our sales people, use our marketing muscle.” That’s exactly what they did, and they created the first big marketing campaigns around these brands, and they socialized them, leveraging their infrastructure, and that’s why they’re so big today.
And then we have brands like Evian or Fiji, like a trip to the Pacific Isles or the French Alps. Most of us can’t afford a vacation in the Fiji Islands, but a bottle of Fiji, even at four dollars, we can afford, right? Might not be the smartest purchase, but it’s the example of affordable luxury. It’s an example where they leverage their aesthetic and their package and their label to transport someone even momentarily to another place, playing on your sense of ego.
Well, at the top of that pyramid is where we wanted to position Ethos. Not water that is better for you, but water that is better for the world, water that’ll allow you to self-actualize, to do something more than, again, your—than your—just physically hydrate you. But what we discovered along the way, that if we were to succeed, we needed to hydrate people as effectively as those private-label products, to come from a local place that people trusted like the security products, like the Nestlé products, to be well marketed and well distributed like the Coke and Pepsi products, and to have a form factor, a package and aesthetic as good, if not better, than the Evian and the Fiji products. Quite frankly, social enterprise is not an excuse or a shortcut. The cause doesn’t get you anything other than, maybe, a pat on the back. You have got to be as good if not better than the competition. Social entrepreneurship is about delivering superior value. And when you can embed social change in the DNA of your brand, when you can integrate it into the architecture of your company, you’ve got a shot, but you’ve got to deliver all the basics first. Make no mistake. It’s about performance, and that’s fundamentally important.
Now, it’s also about commitment, because if you’re going to say, “Hey, I want to change the world,” you better, you’d better live up to your expectations. I can tell you how we tried to do it at Ethos. First of all, we only sourced our water from local, sustainable springs. We didn’t bring in our water from a fjord in Norway or the French Alps. We brought it from the Sierra Nevada Mountains that were close to our customers, and when we were going to grow to the East Cost, we waited to find a spring on that side of the country before we would sell to customers on that—in that part of the U.S. We tried to reduce our water miles and to diminish our impact on any one source. Now, we also, I should say, didn’t try to build the largest water company. That was never the idea. The idea was, as I mentioned before, how do we change the way people think about water. I told you it’s an irrational industry, so we moved into reusable products. We moved into recyclable—we looked at biodegradable packaging. We tried to find ways to change the equation. I can assure you, you will not see an Evian reusable bottle or an Aquafina reusable bottle anytime soon, but that’s what we wanted to do. Even if it meant that it would hurt our sales, we thought it was the right thing for the cause.
Now, another really key point to build a social enterprise, you can’t just show commitment across your value chain. You’d better explain that to your customers. You had better be transparent. They want to know. So, when we started the business, even before we sold a bottle, before we made a penny, we started making donations out of our own wallets to fund humanitarian water programs around the world, and, as we grew, we kept updating our consumers on that on our website and our marketing materials. Transparency is so important, I think, today. In a world where everything can be discovered, where everyone has, again, these massive supercomputers in their breast pocket, where there’s a massive amount of data coming at you, you can’t hide any more. You can’t obscure the facts. It will be found. So, we put our foot forward, and we tried to be as transparent as we could, and it’s an axiom that I would encourage all of you to adopt. Transparency and sunlight are great antidotes, and they will serve you well in the marketplace. If you can create the space for engagement, not just with your customers, but with your vendors, with your stakeholders, you can create that opportunity, not just for conversation, but for co-creation. That’s when you start to get leverage.
Again, this idea started with Peter in 2001, and then we get to the point where people feel so compelled that this is what they do. This is when we knew we were really on to something and on to something big, when we realized that the same felt sense of inspiration we felt could be shared with others in powerful, unanticipated ways. Which brings us to a small coffee company up in Seattle. Some of you may have heard of it before. And I’ll tell you, when we were thinking about our growth, thinking about where we would go, Whole Foods was a natural partner, but we also thought, wouldn’t Starbucks be a great place to distribute our product, and there are a couple reasons why. First of all, Starbucks at its heart and soul has a remarkable entrepreneur in Howard Schultz. He is awesome. I mean, it’s impossible to put into words what he has meant for the company and, I think, what he’s meant for American business, forgetting the fact that we’re all spending, you know, I don’t know, five dollars a shot at Starbucks, this guy really changed the way we think about retail and some—in some very, very masterful ways and has built a marvelous company. He’s the heart and soul of it. Now, secondly, what do you think a cup of coffee really is, guys? It’s just flavored water. We thought we should sell Starbucks in the stores. Our brand will be a good fit. Howard will like the startup, and all they’re doing is selling water. More so than that, where do you think they get the coffee and tea from? Any ideas? They call that area across the equator the Bean Belt, from Mexico to Venezuela to Brazil to Kenya, Yemen, India, Indonesia. These are all water-stressed places, and where do you think they’re going to grow? Now, it may come as a shock that they’re not going to open yet another Starbucks, let’s say, in the lobby of the Hilton hotel, but the fact of the matter is Starbucks’ growth will be taking place in Brazil, in India, in China, all water-stressed parts of the world. So, we thought, hey, water matters, not just because it’s their core product, but it matters across their value chain. So, it’s a great issue for Starbucks to take on, and they certainly have a legacy of community service. Starbucks’ employees, they’re called partners in a Starbucks’ sort of vocabulary. They donate hundreds of thousands of hours every year to local communities where you can find their stores. And they have a track record of innovation. They’ve done remarkable things, not just with products, but on service. They launched a campaign last year called “I’m In,” committing people to donate hours in their local communities and getting a free cup of coffee when they do, and logging all of that on the Internet. I mean, it’s a remarkable business.
So, we thought wouldn’t this be a great place to sell our product? So we went and visited, we talked to them, we met with Howard, and he came back and said, “I don’t just want to actually sell your product. I want to own your product. I want to own your business. I want to acquire your company.”
Now, we thought “Wow. That wasn’t what we expected.” But I can tell you, when you start your company to create social change, when you’re willing to sacrifice 50% of your profits to make a difference, getting acquired by a Fortune 500 isn’t the first thing you have in mind—which actually translated into leverage at that negotiating table. We said to Starbucks, “If you want to buy our business, you’d better show us how you can scale our social mission.” And so here’s what we worked out.
We were donating 50% percent of our profits. We weren’t even profitable yet when we were bought. They said—but you know—they said, “We’ll commit to that.”
We said, “You’ve got to do more. You need to donate an amount per unit. So for every bottle sold, there will be a hard number that gets donated to the cause.” By our math, we figured we’d be doing 2–2 ¼ cents per bottle once we started really kicking in. Now, small company, high cost-structure, may seem little to you, but to us, 2–2 ¼, that would have been a lot of money per unit sold. We said, “So, Starbucks, you’d better double that. Five cents a unit.”
And guess what? They said, “Sure. Okay. We can do that.”
We’re like, “Wait, wait. I’m sorry. Wait a second. We said five cents.”
They did a calculation, and they said, “Yeah. That’s not a problem. What else?”
We’re like, “Oh, rats.” But the fact of the matter is that five cents per unit is so important. Since the acquisition, Starbucks stock has risen and fallen and it’s rising again. Profits have come and gone but five cents. Five cents is forever, which means every bottle will make a difference today, tomorrow, for the entire life of the brand. We think that’s very meaningful.
Secondly, we said, “Well, guess what? You’re going to sell this thing in your stores for what, $1.80, $1.90, $2.00 a bottle?” We said, “Five cents is going to seem pretty paltry. It’s going to be a problem—it’s a problem for us, it’s going to be a problem for you. So, you’ve got to make a big commitment right out the gate. A big commitment to show people that you really care about this issue.”
And so, Starbucks, to their extraordinary credit, to Howard Schultz’s remarkable leadership, they looked at Peter and I, and they said, “You’re right. We do. We do have to do this.”
And so we worked back the math and looked at our expected volumes, and we agreed to commit $10 million—they agreed to commit $10 million within the first five years of the brand. A number which I’m delighted to report they were able to achieve. You know, it’s been six years since they bought the company, and they’ve done more than $10 million to fund—it’s more like half a million to provide lifetime access to clean water to more than half a million people around the world. Think about that. Think about a large, multinational corporation, right up front accruing $10 million. Just to help people in need, in places where they don’t operate, people who don’t buy their product, but just making a commitment on an issue. To us, that felt really profound, because now every bottle would make a difference, and now there would be a meaningful commitment that would hopefully inspire other companies to do the same.
Now, thirdly and maybe most importantly, we said, “You’ve got to commit to build on our brand and our story.” And they were able to do that because we went from having a national presence, but fairly concentrated on the West Coast, to suddenly being in, as Brian said, 7,000 stores all over the country, overnight, in the best locations with the best customers. We could tell our story, and they committed to use our marketing to tell that. Now, that was pretty great because what we’re able to do was to not just put it on package but to create the movement.
So, I think this talk, for me, was really about planting seeds. It’s not about saying you need to go out and create the next Ethos Water. It’s not about saying you need to go out and build your own business. It’s just not. I think about the words of Robert Kennedy; you know, the former democratic senator and presidential candidate, who said that few of us have the greatness to bend history, but all of us can work to change the world, and in the total of those small acts will be written the history of our generation. So, I ask you, how will you write that history? What will be your acts, big or small, to make an impression?
Now in closing, I want to point out to this slide. This picture, it’s an image of a march in Selma, Alabama, from the ’60s. I’m sure everyone in the room recognizes this man in the middle, Dr. Martin Luther King, the civil rights pioneer, who said, “Life’s most … urgent question is: What are you doing for others?” Not how, but what? And then, to his right, it’s a guy by the name of Abraham Joshua Heschel, who’s a very famous theologian, and he said, “ … every little deed counts.” Every word matters and all of us in our own way can redeem the world. I hope all of you will leave today, will complete your degree in your time at Walden thinking about that. How will you, planting those seeds, redeem the world? Thank you very much.